Special Collection

Special Collection: HIV and Intimate Partner Violence


This Special Collection is developed to highlight the issues, resources and other suggestions for addressing HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) within our communities. The collection organizes information and resources available on the internet such as tips and curricula drawn from the wealth of information gathered from partner organizations, experts from the field, and other allies. More specifically, this toolkit will house resources on cultural issues, national sources, statistics, topical issues and approaches, existing programs, and available material and resources to create awareness and promote important discussions about HIV/IPV. This collection will expand as resources and new information become available.   

The National Indigenous Women's Resource Center and this special collection resource was supported by Grant Number 90EV0452-01-00 from the Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Family and Youth Services Bureau, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 

The National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center’s (NIWRC) toolkit is designed to provide a collection of resources to address the intersectionality of issues inherent to both HIV and IPV.  It is intended to assist readers locate advocates, information to share with healthcare professionals, schools, or resources to use for their own outreach projects.  In addition, those in our communities can use this toolkit to learn about HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). 

This toolkit is primarily designed for tribal coalitions, domestic violence programs, educators, advisors, and community members to obtain resources, education and other materials to use in their delivery of services.  In addition, victims of trafficking may access this toolkit directly. 

Within each non-native specific resource when available, further considerations for how it applies to Native communities, or some special considerations will be provided when needed.

National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center


NIWRC is a resource center for Native Tribal Coalitions and for the communities they serve.  The website contains resources, including training materials, posters, handouts on multiple topics, upcoming events, news, links to other partner agencies and other resources. 

National Domestic Violence Hotline

800-799-SAFE (7233)| 800-787-3224 TTY | www.thehotline.org

The National Domestic Violence Hotline is the vital link to safety and support for anyone affected by domestic violence. Highly-trained advocates can provide information, crisis intervention, help develop a safety plan, discuss options, and directly connect callers with sources of help in communities across the U.S. The Hotline is also an excellent resource for concerned friends, family members, co-workers and others seeking information and guidance on how to help someone they know. The Hotline provides support in more than 170 languages and is available 24/7 by calling 1-800-799-7233. Services are also offered via online chat at thehotline.org Monday through Friday, 9am-7pm CT.

Southwest Center for Law and Policy, Tucson, AZ


The Southwest Center for Law and Policy (SWCLAP) is a non-profit 501(c) 3 organization based in Tucson, Arizona. Since 2002, SWCLAP has been providing legal training and technical assistance, on a national level, to OVW grantees serving American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) victims of sexual and domestic violence, stalking, elder abuse, teen dating violence, firearms violence, and abuse of persons with disabilities.

National Indian Country Clearinghouse on Sexual Assault


NICCSA.org is a project of the Southwest Center for Law and Policy and strives to be a one-stop, comprehensive source for information on sexual violence in Indian Country.  On NICCSA.org, you can access federal legislation, Tribal codes, cutting edge articles by Indian Country experts, and funding opportunities.


Tribal Law and Policy Institute, West Hollywood, CA


The Tribal Law and Policy Institute (TLPI) is a 100% Native American operated non-profit corporation organized to design and deliver education, research, training, and technical assistance programs which promote the enhancement of justice in Indian country and the health, well-being, and culture of Native peoples.

Tribal Equity Toolkit: Tribal Resolutions and Codes to Support Two Spirit/LGBT Justice in Indian Country

Bias-Motivated (Hate) Crimes

Criminal Offenses with Bias Motive

Prohibiting Specific Actions

Enhanced Penalties

Bias-Motivated Crime Reporting and Training


Addressing Historical Trauma:  The struggle of Native American women against HIV/AIDS


Native American women are experiencing growing rates of HIV and remain one of the most

at-risk populations in the country.  The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center

(NNAAPC) describes these risk as well as culturally-responsive interventions underway to

help Native women reduce their risk of HIV infections. 

Toolkit for Integrating HIV Services in Native Health Settings

National Native American AIDS Prevention Center

This Native-focused toolkit is the result of collaboration between Center for Health Training (CHT) and the National Native American AIDS Prevention Center (NNAAPC) in early 2010.  CHT subcontracted with NNAAPC to review the original toolkit and adapt it as necessary to create a more relevant toolkit for Native communities. This toolkit is for all health agencies (not just reproductive health) that work with Native communities that are interested in better integrating HIV services.



Note: “Roadmap to Integration: HIV Prevention in Reproductive Health” that Center for Health Training (CHT) staff organized and distributed in September 2009.

HIV Prevention Gender Toolkit Fact Sheet



The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Office on Women’s Health (OWH) has been the domestic leader in creating diverse funding streams and innovative programming that focuses HIV prevention efforts on the unique realities and heightened risk of women and girls. As result of this specialized focus, OWH developed the HIV Prevention Gender Toolkit. The Gender Toolkit is designed for program planners and managers who are interested in integrating gender issues, in planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating HIV prevention programs and support services for women and adolescent girls. These include those working in HHS-, State-, Tribally and locally funded programs, community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, AIDS service organizations, hospitals and clinics. The Toolkit may also be useful for public health policy makers at the federal, state, tribal, and local levels who are seeking to codify and give formal recognition to gender responsive programming, and are making decisions about the focus and scope of HIV prevention programs, and the allocation of funding to support them in order to improve the status and health of women.

Social Services for Women Living with HIV-The Facts

Center for Women & HIV Advocacy at HIV Law Project


Women now account for 27% of new HIV infections. Women’s care and service

needs differ from those of men, and programming that supports women and meets their

varied needs inevitably improves health outcomes.

In the present fiscal climate, however, where social services are under attack at every level

of government, the safety net for women and others with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. is weakening.

Treatment is no longer guaranteed, and support systems for low income people living with

HIV/AIDS are in similar peril.

The Center for HIV Law & Policy


National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) works to prevent, respond to,

and end all forms of violence against and within lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer,

(LGBTQ), and HIV-affected communities. NCAVP is a national coalition of local member

programs, affiliate organizations, and individuals who create systemic and social change. We

strive to increase power, safety, and resources through data analysis, policy advocacy,

education, and technical assistance.

The Northwest Network


The NW Network increases our communities’ ability to support the self-determination & safety of bisexual, trans, lesbian & gay survivors of domestic & dating violence through advocacy, organizing and education. We work within a broad liberation movement dedicated to social & economic justice, equality and respect for all people & the creation of loving, inclusive and accountable communities.

National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence: Futures Without Violence


For almost two decades, the National Health Resource Center on Domestic Violence (HRC) has supported health care professionals, domestic violence experts, survivors, and policy makers at all levels as they improve health care’s response to domestic violence. The HRC offers personalized, expert technical assistance, an online toolkit for health care providers and DV advocates to prepare a clinical practice to address domestic and sexual violence, a free E-Bulletin and webinar series. The HRC also holds the biennial National Conference on Health and Domestic Violence—a scientific meeting at which health, medical and domestic violence experts and leaders explore the latest health research and programmatic responses to domestic violence.

Making the Connection: Intimate Partner Violence and Public Health


Futures Without Violence announces an improved evidence-based tool, Making the Connection: Intimate Partner Violence and Public Health. This PowerPoint training and education tool distills the most recent data and promising practices on the health impact of violence on maternal child health, mental health, injury prevention, children and adolescents, and more. Over 300 slides present compelling data, national resources, and program and policy recommendations along with photos and graphics to engage diverse audiences.  The tool is divided into downloadable chapters and includes a compendium listing the full citations for each chapter.  Presenters may pick and choose which slides to include in trainings, and reference “speaker’s notes” to strengthen presentations.  This updated pre-packaged tool continues to be invaluable to leaders in the fields of health and violence to help carry out effective training and education for staff.

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence - HIV and DV 


The NCADV works to raise awareness about domestic violence; to educate and create programming and technical assistance, to assist the public in addressing the issue, and to support those impacted by domestic violence. 


Links include:

·  Quick Facts About Domestic Violence and HIV/AIDS

·  Quick Facts for Survivors

·  Links to Important HIV AIDS Resources

·  HIV/AIDS Personal Questionnaire for Domestic Violence Survivors

·  Links from the training, “Addressing the Link between Violence Against Women and Increased Risk for HIV”

·  Module I

·  Module II

·  Module III

·  Part 1 for HIV Providers

·  Part 2 for IPV Advocates

·  Module IV

National Network to End Domestic Violence - DV and HIV/AIDS Toolkit


The National Network to End Domestic Violence (NNEDV), a social change organization, is dedicated to creating a social, political and economic environment in which violence against women no longer exists.


This toolkit aims to provide domestic violence and HIV/AIDS service providers with information and resources to enhance services for persons exposed to HIV/AIDS and domestic violence. The information provided here addresses frequently asked questions, common challenges, best practices, templates for adaptation, and resources for additional information and assistance. Several resources support building collaborative partnerships and cross training efforts between the domestic violence and HIV/AIDS fields. Strong, collaborative relationships are important for ensuring quality services for domestic violence survivors who may be at risk for or living with HIV/AIDS.

Notes on Toolkit Resource Language Use:

Intimate Partner Violence: or IPV, is another term used for Domestic Violence, often used in the medical field, and describes a relationship in which an act or pattern of acts is used by a person to gain or maintain control, harm, threaten, intimidate, harass, coerce, control, isolate, restrain, or monitor another person in an current or former intimate relationship or a social relationship.
Survivor/Victim: these terms are used interchangeably to refer to a person who is currently or was formerly in an abusive relationship as a way to recognize the unique challenges an individual faces while still in a relationship as well as their experience in fleeing and healing from an abusive relationship.
Gendered pronoun use: Because domestic violence is not a strictly heteronormative trend, meaning that all genders can perpetuate and become victim to domestic violence, we have made a conscious effort to use gender-neutral pronouns in many of our materials. However, in recognition that 85% of victims of domestic violence are female, there are some instances where gendered pronouns are used. (nnedv.org)

Women’s HIV Program


WHP is now among the nation’s foremost researchers and health policy leaders, advocating for a transformation of our healthcare system to one that is trauma-informed. Our research has provided the foundation for a movement towards trauma-informed primary care. We have published studies documenting staggeringly high rates of trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among women living with HIV, the negative impacts of trauma on health and well-being, and the efficacy of pragmatic interventions to help women heal from trauma and prevent further abuse. Our team now affects health policy among national foundations and at the highest level of government. WHP was recently selected to be one of six national demonstration sites for trauma-informed primary care. WHP co-led the National Strategy Group on Trauma-informed Primary Care and is now working in partnership with the White House Office of National AIDS Policy, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and other major national foundations to develop and disseminate this model broadly throughout the country.

Anti-Violence Project


AVP empowers lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and HIV-affected communities and allies to end all forms of violence through organizing and education, and supports survivors through counseling and advocacy.

National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs


The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs works to prevent, respond to, and end all forms of violence against and within LGBTQ communities. NCAVP is a national coalition of local member programs, affiliate organizations and individual affiliates who create systemic and social change. We strive to increase power, safety and resources through data analysis, policy advocacy, education and technical assistance.

NCAVP Toolkits

The National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs creates guides and toolkits which contain helpful yet practical ways you and your community can address intimate partner violence and hate violence generally and specifically for transgender and people-of-color survivors.
Note*: Files are in PDF format; may take a minute to download.

Community Action Toolkit for Addressing Intimate Partner Violence Against People of Color
Community Action Toolkit for Addressing Intimate Partner Violence Against Transgender People
Community Action Toolkit for Addressing Hate Violence Against LGBTQ and HIV-Affected Communities
Rapid Incident Response Toolkit for Responding to Violence in LGBTQ & HIV-Affected Communities
Community Action Factsheet for Addressing Hate Violence Against Transgender Communities
Community Action Factsheet for Addressing Hate Violence Against Communities of Color

Domestic Shelters


We make finding the right shelter and information about domestic violence easier. Instead of searching the Internet, it is all right here. We’ve painstakingly verified information on shelters in LA to shelters in NY, and every domestic violence program in between. If you or a friend is suffering from physical abuse, emotional abuse, psychological abuse or verbal abuse, this free service can help. Select domestic violence programs based on location, service and language needs. Find 24-hour hotlines in your area, service listings, and helpful articles on domestic violence statistics, signs and cycles of abuse, housing services, emergency services, legal and financial services, support groups for women, children and families, and more.

10 Things to Know About IPV and HIV

Violence shares an unfortunate link with an HIV diagnosis (August 2015)


ACLU – American Civil Liberties Union

HIV and Homeless Shelters:  Policy and Practice


Features a hands-on policy and practice toolkit for homeless shelters, focusing on the connection between HIV/AIDS, homelessness and shelters, including a five-part teaching guide, suggestions for improving conditions for residents with HIV, and a model non-discrimination policy that shelters are urged to adopt.

Rapid HIV Testing and Counseling for Residents in Domestic Violence Shelters (Journal on Women’s Health, March 2015)



Over one million Americans live with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and roughly 20% of those living with HIV are unaware of their status. One way to decrease this epidemic is community-based rapid testing with high-risk populations. One high-risk population that has received limited attention is victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) who seek shelter. In an effort to gain foundational information to implement rapid HIV testing and counseling services in domestic violence shelters, the current study conducted a series of focus groups with 18 residents and 10 staff of local shelters from October 15th to December 12th, 2012. Participants provided valuable insight into how HIV rapid testing and counseling might be best implemented given the resources and constraints of shelter life. Despite identifying some potential barriers, most believed that the promise of quick results, the convenience and support afforded by the shelter venue, and the timing of the intervention at a point when women are making life changes would render the intervention acceptable to residents. Further insights are discussed in the article.

Greentree II: Violence against Women and Girls, and HIV:  Report on high-level consultation on the evidence and implications (May 2015)


Complied and edited by Lori Heise and Elizabeth McGrory, this publication synthesizes the discussions and conclusions of a three-day expert consultation on the links between HIV and violence against women and girls (VAWG).

STRIVE convened the consultation with support from WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS and the Greentree Foundation in order to:

  • examine the existing evidence base on the links between VAWG and HIV and identify critical knowledge gaps
  • develop a conceptual model that captures the potential pathways through which violence influences HIV-related outcomes
  • propose a research agenda to resolve outstanding questions 
  • suggest priority actions for policy, programmes and research

Greentree II built on a prior meeting (Greentree I, March 2012) that explored the physiology of sexual violence and its role in HIV transmission and acquisition. The report from the first Greentree consultation clarified the role that genital trauma and forced sex play in facilitating HIV acquisition, especially among young women. Greentree II was convened to deepen and share this evidence as well as examining the broader structural and social factors that affect the association between HIV and VAWG. 

Guttmacher Institute

Guttmacher Policy Review, Volume 19

Understanding Intimate Partner Violence as a Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Issue in the United States (July 2016)



  • Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health crisis in the United States, and addressing IPV and its consequences is a critical component of sexual and reproductive health and rights in this country. 
  • IPV, particularly acts of sexual violence and reproductive control, disproportionately impact women of reproductive age and can compromise women’s sexual and reproductive health and autonomy.
  • Understanding where IPV and sexual and reproductive health intersect at the federal policy level is critical to better addressing the needs of those experiencing IPV and to better supporting safety-net providers in doing so.

A Report from the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP): Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and HIV-Affected Intimate Partner Violence in 2012 (2013 Release Edition)


This National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) annual report examines the intersections between LGBTQ and HIV-affected intimate partner violence (IPV) and various forms of oppression that affect these communities. Of the 36.1 percent of victims who disclosed their HIV status, 19 percent reported being seropositive. However, since the report relied on self-reported data by survivors of intimate partner violence seeking services at one of the 19 NCAVP-affiliated programs across 20 states, this report may not accurately speak to the true incidence of IPV present in the HIV affected community.


The Intersection of Violence and Trauma With HIV Among Women:  Issue Brief (June 2014)

Women’s Research Initiative on HIV/AIDS (WRI)



CDC Injury Prevention & Control: Division of Violence Prevention: Intimate Partner Violence


CDC: Fact Sheet


Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women (February 2014)


Findings from these studies indicate:

• Women and men who report a history of IPV victimization are more likely than those who do not to report behaviors known to increase the risk for HIV, including injection drug use, treatment for a sexually transmitted infection (STI), giving or receiving money or drugs for sex, and anal sex without a condom in the past year. This is true even when other factors such as demographic characteristics, other unhealthy behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, high body mass index) and negative health conditions (e.g., stroke, disability, and asthma) are similar.

• HIV-positive women in the United States experience IPV at rates that are higher than for the general population.6 Across a number of studies, the rate of IPV among HIV-positive women (55%) was double the national rate, and the rates of childhood sexual abuse (39%) and childhood physical abuse (42%) were more than double the national rate.

• Rates of violence victimization among HIV-positive women are comparable to those for HIV-negative women drawn from similar populations and with similar levels of HIV risk behaviors. However, HIV-positive women may experience abuse that is more frequent and more severe.

• Women in relationships with violence have four times the risk for contracting STIs, including HIV, than women in relationships without violence.

• Fear of violence can influence whether some women get tested for HIV. However, in one US study, fear of partner notification and partner violence were not statistically associated with women’s decisions to get or not get an HIV test.

• Sexual abuse in childhood and forced sexual initiation in adolescence are associated with increased HIV risk-taking behaviors, including sex with multiple partners, sex with unfamiliar partners, sex with older partners, alcohol-related risky sex, anal sex, and low rates of condom use as well as HIV infection, in adult women.

Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS: Critical Intersections

Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS (World Health Organization/Information Bulletin Series, Number 1)


The report focuses on women and HIV/AIDS since, “[t]oday, half or more of the 40 million people infected with HIV in the world are women.  Millions of those infected with HIV are young people aged 15-24 years who now account for half of all new infections.” 

The extent of the problem:

·      Globally, between 10 and 69% of women report physical abuse by an intimate partner at least once in their lives.

·      Between 6 and 47% of adult women worldwide report being sexually assaulted by intimate partners in their lifetime.

·      Between 7 and 48% of girls and young women age 10-24 years report their first sexual encounter as coerced.  (Source: WHO 2002; Garcia-Morena and Watts 2000; Heise et al. 1999)

Research Backgrounder: Interventions to Reduce Intimate Partner Violence Among Populations At Risk of HIV (Ontario HIV Treatment Network, 2016)



Finding Our Voices: HIV, Intimate Partner Violence and Healing From Trauma


Trauma-Informed HIV Prevention and Treatment (October 2016)



The high prevalence of trauma and its negative impact on health and health-promoting behaviors underscore the need for multi-level interventions to address trauma and its associated sequelae to improve physical and mental well-being in both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected populations. Growing global awareness of the intersection of trauma and HIV has resulted in development and testing of interventions to address trauma in the context of HIV treatment and HIV prevention in the USA and globally. Despite increasing recognition of the widespread nature of trauma and the importance of trauma to HIV transmission around the globe, several gaps remain. Through a survey of the literature, we identified eight studies (published in the past 5 years) describing interventions to address the effects of trauma on HIV-related outcomes. In particular, this study focused on the levels of intervention, populations the interventions were designed to benefit, and types of trauma addressed in the interventions in the context of both HIV prevention and treatment. Remarkably absent from the HIV prevention, interventions reviewed were interventions designed to address violence experienced by men or transgender individuals, in the USA or globally. Given the pervasive nature of trauma experienced generally, but especially among individuals at heightened risk for HIV, future HIV prevention interventions universally should consider becoming trauma-informed. Widespread acknowledgement of the pervasive impact of gender-based violence on HIV outcomes among women has led to multiple calls for trauma-informed care (TIC) approaches to improve the effectiveness of HIV services for HIV-infected women. TIC approaches may be relevant for and should also be tested among men and all groups with high co-occurring epidemics of HIV and trauma (e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), transgendered populations, injection drug users, sex workers), regardless of type of trauma experience.

Tribal HIV/STD Advocacy Kit & Policy Guide



The 2012 Tribal HIV/STD Advocacy Kit & Policy Guide was created by the Indian Health Service, with assistance from the Office of Minority Health Resource Center and the Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board. The original guide was developed by Project Red Talon for tribes in the Pacific Northwest in 2006. It was well received and frequently requested by tribes in other regions of the country.

The second edition has been updated and expanded for use by decision-makers and advocates throughout Indian Country. We encourage tribal health advocates to use the Kit (and its accompanying PowerPoint slides) when meeting with tribal council members and other decision-makers to help facilitate your conversation about HIV/STD prevention strategies in your community.

·      Tribal HIV/STD Advocacy Kit

·      Tribal HIV/STD Policy Template

·      Tribal HIV/STD Advocacy Kit and Policy Guide

·      Tribal HIV/STD Advocacy Kit & Policy Guide Power Point 

Indian Health Service

Indian Health Manual, Intimate Partner Violence



IPV is a significant public health problem that can have devastating effects on individuals, families, and communities.  American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people experience rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner at higher rates than the general U.S. population.  However, the impact of IPV is not fully understood as social barriers such as privacy, guilt, shame, and fear inhibit reporting rates.

IPV has been correlated with an increased risk of heart disease, asthma, chronic pain syndromes, gastrointestinal disorders, sexually transmitted infections, gynecological, and prenatal complications.  There are emotional and psychological consequences, such as depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder.  Adverse health behaviors associated with IPV include high-risk sexual activity, alcohol and substance use/abuse, and increased risk for suicide.

The highest rates of IPV occur in women of childbearing age, a time when early screening, detection, and intervention may increase personal safety.  The impact on children exposed to IPV has wide implications including increased risk for physical, sexual, emotional neglect, harm and death.

Family Violence Prevention Fund

Compendium of State Statutes and Policies on Domestic Violence and Health Care


The Compendium includes state-specific summaries that address the following areas:  domestic violence fatality review; mandatory reporting of domestic violence to law enforcement by health care providers; insurance discrimination against victims of domestic violence; health care protocols addressing domestic violence; screening for domestic violence by health care professionals and training on domestic violence for health care professionals.  Additional information is provided where available on state public health programs and funding opportunities.

American Psychological Association

Psychology and AIDS Exchange Newsletter (April 2016)

Current Issues in intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV



Intimate partner violence (IPV) describes physical, sexual or psychological harm, threats of physical or sexual violence and psychological aggression by a current or former partner or spouse (CDC, 2014, (PDF, 362KB)). Nearly one in two HIV- positive women has a history of sexual abuse when compared to one in three HIV- negative women with similar histories (Wyatt et al., 2002). One in three men who have sex with men have a history of sexual and/or interpersonal violence (Williams, Ramamurthi, Manago & Hawara, 2009). Some people ask how and why histories of sex and violence increase risks for HIV/AIDS. 

Fact Sheets

  • The Effects of HIV on the Body
    This article explains how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the body and directly attacks the immune system. Find out how it can weaken the body’s natural defenses and affect the different parts of your body.
  • CDC HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets
    This site acts as the resource center for the CDC’s HIV/AIDs related fact sheets. Fact sheets are divided by population, testing, treatment, surveillance, prevention, co-infection, risk behaviors and transmission risks.
  • Guttmacher Institute: HIV/AIDS and STIs
    This site acts as the resource center for the Guttmacher Institute’s fact sheets, highlighted policy articles and briefs, research articles, reports, audio clips and slide shows.
  • HIV/AIDS and Socioeconomic Status
    Socioeconomic status (SES) is often measured as a combination of education, income, and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. When viewed through a social class lens, privilege, power and control are emphasized. Furthermore, an examination of SES as a gradient or continuous variable reveals inequities in access to and distribution of resources. SES is relevant to all realms of behavioral and social science, including research, practice, education and advocacy.
  • Kaiser Family Foundation Fact Sheet

This site is the government’s main resource center.

HIV Guidelines

Clinical Trials

HIV/AIDS Health Topics


HIV Vaccine Research

AIDSinfo tools

CDC National Prevention Information Network (NPIN): The CDC National AIDS Prevention Information Network – HIV, STDs, and TB information and links.

National Center for Health Statistics page on AIDS/HIV. Includes tables and national data sets.

Most recent HIV Surveillance Data.

Drugs of Abuse and HIV/AIDS Information

  • HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau
    HRSA is the primary Federal agency for improving access to health care services for people who are uninsured, isolated or medically vulnerable. This bureau focuses on HIV/AIDS issues.
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease
    This is a site on HIV/AIDS research and HIV-related articles from major wire services and newspapers across the U.S., an extensive online library of HIV/AIDS-related journals, and a database of scientific abstracts and other related documents. Fully indexed and searchable.
  • National Institute of Mental Health: AIDS Research – Reducing the burden of mental illness and behavioral disorders through research on mind, brain, and behavior.
  • National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD) – NASTAD represents the nation’s chief state health agency staff who have programmatic responsibility for administering HIV/AIDS healthcare, prevention, education, and supportive service programs funded by state and federal governments. NASTAD is dedicated to reducing the incidence of HIV/AIDS infection in the U.S. and its territories, providing comprehensive, compassionate, and high-quality care to all persons living with HIV/AIDS, and ensuring responsible public policies.
  • United Nations (UN) Programme on HIV/AIDS
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) HIV/AIDS – FDA responsibilities include a variety of HIV/AIDS-related issues.  The agency primarily serves a review and oversight function in areas related to drugs, biologics and medical devices for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, and AIDS-related conditions.

Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups (Journal of Women’s Health, March 2015)



In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants.

HIV, Intimate Partner Violence, and Women: New Opportunities Under the Affordable Care Act (October 2014)


An Excerpt:

Women in the United States experience high rates of violence and trauma, including physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and women with HIV, who represent about a quarter of all people living with HIV in the U.S., are disproportionally affected.1,2,3 Intimate partner violence (IPV), also called domestic violence (DV)4, in particular has been shown to be associated with increased risk for HIV among women as well as poorer treatment outcomes for those who are already infected.5,6 In addition, it has been suggested that women are at risk of experiencing violence upon disclosure of their HIV status to partners.7 In recognition of the risks experienced by women with HIV, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum in 2012 establishing an interagency working group to examine the intersection of HIV, violence against women and girls, and gender-related health disparities, noting, among other things, that “[g]ender based violence continues to be an underreported, common problem that, if ignored, increases risks for HIV and may prevent women and girls from seeking prevention, treatment, and health services.”8 Given the role that IPV plays in HIV risk, transmission, and care and treatment, finding ways to mitigate its effects is an important part of addressing the HIV epidemic among women in the United States.

Issue Brief:


Assessing the Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Health Insurance Coverage of People with HIV (January 2014)


Intimate partner violence and sexual assault in Native American communities.

US National Library of Medicine

National Institutes of Health



Previous studies indicate that Native American women experience the highest rate of violence of any ethnic or racial group in the United States. This article addresses the prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual assault among Native Americans. We present significant substantive and methodological issues that inform research on violence in the lives of Native Americans, as well as existing interventions. Interventions discussed in this article fall within three major categories including those that are community based, those grounded in the public health and health care systems, and those grounded in federal and national organizations. We provide some examples of interventions from each of these three levels of direct service, including a brief discussion of barriers to service accessibility. We conclude with substantive and methodological recommendations for research and practice.

NativeLove (NIWRC)


Verizon has partnered with NIWRC to raise awareness and help end violence against Native youth by empowering them to redefine Native Love. Those of us in Native communities often hear jokes about “Indian loving” as waking up with a hickey and black eye- that’s not love, that’s dating violence. Our NativeLove project encourages Native youth to think about what Native Love really is, so we can create change in our thinking and restore safety to our communities by restoring our traditional ways of loving, characterized by respect, honor, kindness, family and compassion.

Our NativeLove project includes a youth video/photo challenge, posters, social media campaigns, FAQs, and teen resources and toolkits. These are offered to support and inform youth and educators about healthy relationship and to encourage dialogue in Native communities.

Native Youth Sexual Health Network

The Native Youth Sexual Health Network (NYSHN) is an organization by and for Indigenous youth that works across issues of sexual and reproductive health, rights and justice throughout the United States and Canada.


Advocates for Youth


Established in 1980 as the Center for Population Options, Advocates for Youth champions efforts that help young people make informed and responsible decisions about their reproductive and sexual health. Advocates believes it can best serve the field by boldly advocating for a more positive and realistic approach to adolescent sexual health. Advocates focuses its work on young people ages 14-25 in the U.S. and around the globe.


Webinar: HIV/AIDS, Native Wellness: HIV/AIDS. March 11, 2015.

Intimate Partner Violence, Violence Against American Indian And Alaska Native Women And Men: 2010 Findings From The National Intimate Partner And Sexual Violence Survey